Enterprise Artificial Intelligence Definitions

This glossary explains the meaning of key words and phrases that information technology (IT) and business professionals use when discussing artificial intelligence and related software products. You can find additional definitions by visiting WhatIs.com or using the search box below.

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  • A

    adversarial machine learning

    Adversarial machine learning is a technique used in machine learning to fool or misguide a model with malicious input.

  • AI accelerator

    An AI accelerator is a microchip designed specifically to enable faster processing of artificial intelligence (AI) tasks.

  • AI for Good

    AI for Good is a public charity and UN platform that hosts annual summits in Geneva, Switzerland to discuss the beneficial use of artificial intelligence (AI).

  • AI governance

    AI governance is the idea that there should be a legal framework for ensuring that machine learning (ML) technologies are well researched and developed with the goal of helping humanity navigate the adoption of AI systems fairly.

  • AI washing

    AI washing is a marketing effort designed to associate brands and products with artificial intelligence, even though the connection may be tenuous or non-existent.

  • AI winter

    AI winter is a quiet period for artificial intelligence research and development. In the past few years, AI has been on a long, strong upswing, but after several years of hype, advances and implementations, some analysts are predicting another AI winter.

  • algorithmic accountability

    Algorithmic accountability is the concept that companies should be held responsible for the results of their programmed algorithms.

  • algorithmic transparency

    Algorithmic transparency is openness about the purpose, structure and underlying actions of the algorithms used to search for, process and deliver information.

  • ambient intelligence (AmI)

    Ambient intelligence is the element of a pervasive computing environment that enables it to interact with and respond appropriately to the humans in that environment.

  • android (humanoid robot)

    Android (robot) definition: An android is a robot that is designed to look like a human, either in its basic form or so closely it could almost be mistaken for a person.

  • artificial general intelligence (AGI)

    Artificial general intelligence (AGI) is the representation of generalized human cognitive abilities in software so that, faced with an unfamiliar task, the AI system could find a solution. AGI, sometimes referred to as strong AI, contrasts with weak AI, which is the application of artificial intelligence to specific tasks or types of problems.

  • artificial ignorance

    Artificial ignorance is the artificial intelligence (AI) development practice of ignoring insignificant data in order to focus more attention to important information that might be valuable.

  • artificial intelligence

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems.

  • Artificial Intelligence as a Service (AIaaS)

    Artificial Intelligence as a Service (AIaaS) is the third party offering of artificial intelligence (AI) outsourcing.

  • artificial personality (AP)

    An artificial personality (AP) is a collection of characteristics, tendencies and behavioral quirks assigned to a chatbot, digital assistant, robot or video game character.

  • artificial superintelligence (ASI)

    Artificial superintelligence (ASI) is software-based intellectual powers that surpass human ability across almost all conceivable categories and fields of endeavor.

  • artificially-intelligent attorney (AI attorney)

    An artificially-intelligent attorney is a legal expert system that applies AI technologies to replicate and improve upon the abilities of a human legal research assistant.

  • assistive technology (adaptive technology)

    Assistive technology is a set of devices intended to help people who have disabilities.

  • augmented memory

    Augmented memory is the practice of artificially increasing a person's ability to produce long term memories and retain information.

  • automated reasoning

    Automated reasoning is the area of computer science that is concerned with applying reasoning in the form of logic to computing systems.

  • automated storytelling

    Automated storytelling is a process involving the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to create written stories.

  • B

    backpropagation algorithm

    Backpropagation (backward propagation) is an important mathematical tool for improving the accuracy of predictions in data mining and machine learning. Essentially, backpropagation is an algorithm used to calculate derivatives quickly.

  • bag of words model (BoW model)

    The bag of words model (BoW model) is a reduced and simplified representation of a text document with selected parts of the text.

  • BERT language model

    BERT is an open source machine learning framework for natural language processing (NLP).

  • C

    case-based reasoning (CBR)

    Case-based reasoning (CBR) is an experience-based approach to solving new problems by adapting previously successful solutions to similar problems.

  • cognitive bias

    Cognitive bias is a limitation in objective thinking that is caused by the tendency for the human brain to perceive information through a filter of personal experience and preferences.

  • cognitive computing

    Cognitive computing systems use computerized models to simulate the human cognition process to find solutions in complex situations where the answers may be ambiguous and uncertain.

  • cognitive modeling

    Cognitive modeling is an area of computer science that deals with simulating human problem-solving and mental processing in a computerized model.

  • cognitive search

    Cognitive search is a new generation of enterprise search that uses artificial intelligence technologies to improve users' search queries and extract relevant information from multiple, diverse data sets.

  • complex adaptive system (CAS)

    Complex adaptive system is a term used by DevOps teams to describe an IT platform or project composed of multiple components that interact in ways that cannot be predicted or controlled with complete accuracy.

  • computational linguistics (CL)

    Computational linguistics is the application of computer science to the analysis, synthesis, and comprehension of written and spoken language. Computers that are linguistically competent not only help facilitate human interaction with machines and software, but also make the textual and other resources of the internet readily available in multiple languages.

  • concept mining

    Concept mining is the process of searching documents or unstructured text for ideas and topics.

  • convolutional neural network

    A convolutional neural network (CNN) is a type of artificial neural network used in image recognition and processing that is specifically designed to process pixel data.

  • crypto-agility

    Crypto-agility, or cryptographic agility, is a data encryption practice used by organizations to ensure a rapid response to a cryptographic threat.

  • D

    data science

    Data science is the study of where information comes from, what it represents and how it can be turned into a valuable resource in the creation of business and IT strategies.

  • data scientist

    A data scientist is a professional responsible for collecting, analyzing and interpreting extremely large amounts of data. The data scientist role is an offshoot of several traditional technical roles, including mathematician, scientist, statistician and computer professional.

  • deconvolutional networks (deconvolutional neural networks)

    Deconvolutional networks are convolutional neural networks (CNN) that work in a reversed process.

  • deep learning

    Deep learning is a type of machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) that imitates the way humans gain certain types of knowledge. At its simplest, deep learning can be thought of as a way to automate predictive analytics.

  • deep learning agent

    A deep learning agent is any autonomous or semi-autonomous AI-driven system that uses deep learning to perform and improve at its tasks.

  • developmental robotics

    Developmental robotics is the use of human psychology principles in the design of intelligent, autonomous robots that learn from their own individual experiences. This field is also known as epigenetic robotics.

  • Dialogflow

    Dialogflow is a natural language processing (NLP) platform that can be used to build conversational applications and experiences for a company’s customers in various languages and on multiple platforms.

  • E

    expert system

    An expert system is a program that uses artificial intelligence (AI) technologies to simulate the knowledge and judgment of humans. Expert systems usually include a subject-specific knowledge base and can have additional modules added to expand their capacities.

  • F

    face detection

    Face detection -- also called facial detection -- is an artificial intelligence (AI) based computer technology used to find and identify human faces in digital images.

  • facial recognition

    Facial recognition is a category of biometric software that maps an individual's facial features mathematically and stores the data as a faceprint.

  • fuzzy logic

    Fuzzy logic is an attempt to use more human-like reasoning and better reflect reality through employing"degrees of truth" rather than the usual "true or false" (1 or 0) Boolean logic on which the modern computer is based.

  • G

    generative adversarial network (GAN)

    A generative adversarial network (GAN) is a type of AI machine learning (ML) technique made up of two nets that are in competition with one another in a zero-sum game framework.

  • generative modeling

    Generative modeling is the use of artificial intelligence (AI), statistics and probability in applications to produce a representation or abstraction of observed phenomena or target variables that can be calculated from observations.

  • Google AutoML Vision

    Google AutoML Vision is a machine learning model builder for image recognition, offered as a service from Google Cloud.

  • I

    IBM Watson supercomputer

    Watson is an IBM supercomputer that combines artificial intelligence (AI) and sophisticated analytical software for optimal performance as a 'question answering' machine.

  • image recognition

    Image recognition, in the context of machine vision, is the ability of software to identify objects, places, people, writing and actions in images.

  • intelligent agent

    An intelligent agent is a program that can make decisions or perform a service based on its environment, user input and experiences.

  • intelligent process automation (IPA)

    Intelligent process automation (IPA) is a combination of technologies used to manage and automate digital processes.

  • K

    knowledge engineering

    Knowledge engineering is a field of artificial intelligence (AI) that tries to emulate the judgment and behavior of a human expert in a given field.

  • L

    laboratory robotics

    Laboratory robotics is the practice of using robots to perform or assist in laboratory tasks. While laboratory robots have found applications in diverse industries and sciences, pharmaceutical companies have used them more than any other group.

  • language modeling

    Language modeling (LM) is the use of various statistical and probabilistic techniques to determine the probability of a given sequence of words occurring in a sentence.

  • lemmatization

    Lemmatization is the grouping together of different forms of the same word.

  • M

    machine learning

    Machine learning (ML) is a type of artificial intelligence (AI) that allows software applications to become more accurate at predicting outcomes without being explicitly programmed to do so.

  • machine learning bias (AI bias)

    Machine learning bias is a phenomenon that occurs when an algorithm produces results that are systemically prejudiced due to erroneous assumptions in the machine learning process.

  • machine teaching

    Machine teaching is the emerging practice of infusing context -- and often business consequences -- into the selection of training data used in artificial intelligence (AI) machine learning so that the most relevant outputs are produced by the machine learning algorithms.

  • machine vision (computer vision)

    Machine vision, which is the ability of a computer to see, employs one or more video cameras, analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) and digital signal processing (DSP). The resulting data goes to a computer or robot controller. Machine vision is similar in complexity to voice recognition.

  • motion analysis

    Motion analysis is a measuring technique used in computer vision, image processing and high-speed photography applications to detect movement.

  • N

    artificial neural network (ANN)

    In information technology (IT), a neural network is a system of hardware and/or software patterned after the operation of neurons in the human brain.

  • narrow AI (weak AI)

    Narrow AI is an application of artificial intelligence technologies to enable a high-functioning system that replicates – and perhaps surpasses -- human intelligence for a dedicated purpose.

  • natural language generation (NLG)

    Natural language generation (NLG) is the use of artificial intelligence (AI) programming to produce written or spoken narrative from a dataset.

  • natural language understanding (NLU)

    Natural language understanding (NLU) is a branch of artificial intelligence (AI) that works to use computers to understand input made in the form of sentences in text or speech format.

  • neural net processor

    A neural net processor is a CPU that takes the modeled workings of how a human brain operates onto a single chip. Neural net processors reduce the requirements for brain-like computer processing from whole networks of computers that excel in complex applications such as AI, machine learning or computer vision down to one multi-cored chip.

  • neuromorphic computing

    Neuromorphic computing is a method of computer engineering in which elements of a computer are modeled after systems in the human brain and nervous system.

  • neurosynaptic chip (cognitive chip)

    A neurosynaptic chip, also known as a cognitive chip, is a computer processor that functions more like a biological brain than a typical CPU does.

  • O

    OpenAI

    OpenAI is a non-profit research company that aims to develop and direct artificial intelligence (AI) in ways that benefit humanity as a whole.

  • P

    predictive modeling

    Predictive modeling is a process that uses data mining and probability to forecast outcomes.

  • probabilistic robotics

    Probabilistic robotics, also called statistical robotics, is a field of robotics that involves the control and behavior of robots in environments subject to unforeseeable events. Because reality always involves uncertainty, probabilistic robotics may help robots to more effectively contend with real-world scenarios.

  • PyTorch

    PyTorch is an open source machine learning (ML) framework based on the Python programming language and the Torch library. It is one of preferred platforms for deep learning research.

  • R

    recurrent neural networks

    Recurrent neural networks are a type of advanced neural network that uses directed cycles in memory in order to perform recurrent tasks on a body of data.

  • reinforcement learning

    Reinforcement learning is a machine learning training method based on rewarding desired behaviors and/or punishing undesired ones.

  • robo-advisor

    A robo-advisor is an artificial intelligence (AI) driven virtual financial advisor. Robo-advisors are a type of expert system optimized for financial services.

  • robot

    A robot is a machine designed to execute one or more tasks automatically with speed and precision. There are as many different types of robots as there are tasks for them to perform.

  • robot economy

    The robot economy is a scenario in which most of the labor required to sustain human life is automated.

  • Robot Land

    Robot Land is a proposed city for robotics research, development, testing and production in South Korea.

  • robotic surgery (robot-assisted surgery)

    Robotic surgery is the use of computer technologies working in conjunction with robot systems to perform medical procedures.

  • S

    self-driving car (autonomous car or driverless car)

    A self-driving car (sometimes called an autonomous car or driverless car) is a vehicle that uses a combination of sensors, cameras, radar and artificial intelligence (AI) to travel between destinations without a human operator.

  • Singularity (the)

    The Singularity is the hypothetical future creation of superintelligent machines. Superintelligence is defined as a technologically-created cognitive capacity far beyond that possible for humans.

  • social robot

    A social robot is an artificial intelligence (AI) system that is designed to interact with humans and other robots.

  • stemming

    Stemming is the process of reducing a word to its word stem that affixes to suffixes and prefixes or to the roots of words known as a lemma. Stemming is important in natural language understanding (NLU) and natural language processing (NLP).

  • supervised learning

    Supervised learning is an approach to creating artificial intelligence, where the program is given labeled input data and the expected output results.

  • swarm intelligence

    Swarm intelligence is the study of decentralized, self-organized systems that move quickly in a coordinated manner.

  • swarm robotics

    Swarm robotics is the use of numerous, autonomous robotics to accomplish a task. Robot swarms coordinate the behaviours of a large number of relatively simple robots in a decentralised manner.

  • T

    telepresence robot

    A telepresence robot is a remote-controlled, wheeled device that has wireless internet connectivity. Typically, the robot uses a tablet to provide video and audio capabilities.

  • Turing Test

    A Turing Test is a method of inquiry in artificial intelligence (AI) for determining whether or not a computer is capable of thinking like a human being.

  • U

    ubiquitous robotics

    Ubiquitous robotics is the design and deployment of robots in smart network environments in which everything is interconnected. In this context, the word "ubiquitous" can translate as "omnipresent and pervasive."

  • unsupervised learning

    Unsupervised learning refers to the use of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms to identify patterns in data sets containing data points that are neither classified nor labeled.

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